Volume open access disponibile al sito brill.com/view/title/61727
Events and threats involving the release of Chemical, Biological and Radio- Nuclear (CBRN) substances, as well as the threat of malicious use of Explosives, are among the most fearsome risks in contemporary times. Despite not being a new phenomenon, CBRN risks attracted renewed attention following the 2001 anthrax letters case, which occurred only a few weeks after 9/11. Concern over potential CBRN terrorism was also heightened following the terrorist attacks in Paris (2015) and Brussels (2016). Post-9/11 CBRN events include the use of fentanyl by Russian authorities in the 2002 Moscow Theatre hostage crisis and the recent nerve agent poisoning cases in the UK (2018) and in Russia (2020). But CBRN threats and events may also include the use of banned weapons, both by State and non-State actors, as occurred in Syria; the use of CBRN agents for smaller-scale crimes; industrial accidents involving release of CBRN agents into the environment; and natural disasters or other calamities – such as the spread of COVID-19 in 2020 and the ensuing global pandemic.